Bahmani of Deccen, Capital Gulbarga

Saturday, December 3rd, 2011

SULTANATE

(Southern India)

GULBARGA SULTANATE

(Capital Gulbarga)

The names of those sultans for whom coins are known  ( * coin in collection)

PRECURSERS

1- Ala’ al-Din ‘Ali Shah AH 740 1339 – AD 1340

2-* Nasir al-Din Isma’il Shah AH 746 – 748 / AD 1346 – 1347

BAHMANI SULTANS

1-* Ala’ al-Din Bahman Shah AH 748-760 / AD 1347-1359

2-* Muhammad Shah I AH 760-777 / AD 1359-1375

3-* Ala’ al-Din Mujahid Shah AH 777-779 / AD 1375-1378

4-* Muhammad Shah II AH 780-799 / AD 1378-1397

5-* Ghiyath al-Din Tahmatan Shah AH 799 / AD 1397

6-* Shams al-Din Da’ud Shah II AH 799-800 / AD 1397

7-* Taj al-Din Firuz Shah AH 800-825 / AD 1397-1422

8-* Shihab al-Din Ahmad Shah I AH 825 -839 / AD 1422  1436

9-* Ala’ al-Din Ahmad Shah II AH 839-862 / AD 1436-1458

10-* Ala’ al-Din Humayun Shah AH 862-866 / AD 1458-1461

11-* Nizam al-Din Ahmad Shah-III AH 866-867 / AD 1461-1463

12-*  Shams al-Din Muhammad Shah III AH 867-887 / AD 1463-1482

13-* Shihab al-Din Mahmud Shah AH 887-924 / AD 1482-1518

14-* Ala al Din Muhammad Shah AH 927-929 / AD 1520-1523

15-* Wali Allah AH 929-932 / AD 1523-1526

16-*  Kalim Allah AH 932-945 / AD 1526-1538

* * * * *

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Map of Bahmani Kingdom

BAHMANIS OF DECCEN

In A.H 740 (A.D 1339-1340), Ali Shah Natthu, who had been sent to Gulbarga to collect taxes, instead proclaimed himself king of Dharur with the title Ala-ud-din Ali Shah. Some coins to be struck in ‘Ali’s name. In A.H 746, a group of nobles rebelled and captured Daulatabad. They elected one of their own numbers, Ismail Mukh, as the first independent sultan of the Deccan. This latter adopted the title Abul Fath Nasir ud-din Ismail Shah. He also issued the coins in his name. One of his confederates, Hasan Gangu, was given the title Zafar Khan. Muhammad bin Tughluq was not prepared to accept the revolt, he send his army against Ismail’s forces to retake Daulatabad. Ismail was unable to move, but Zafar Khan bided his time and soon took on the imperial army and defeated it. This left the ground clear and he was elected king by army and the people, in A.H 748 (A.D1347) It was the beginning of The Bahmani Dynasty. He issued the coins in his name. He moved his capital from Daulatabad to the more southerly city of Gulbarga, which was renamed Ahsanabad.

When the last king, Kalim Allah died in A.D 1538 (A.H 945) his son Ilham Allah made his way to Mecca, never to return. And with that the Bahmani sultanate comes to an end.

NOTE-1: Here are Obverse and Reverse legends of Bahmani rulers which are on their coin. It will give help for identifying the coins. These legends and ‘Described’ coin are taken from the book “Copper Coins of Bahmanis” By D. Rja Reddy & P. Suryanarayana Reddy.

NOTE-2: The following is a brief note on some of the Bahamani ‘Legends and
epithets’ on their coin and literary connotation.

 

1-    Al Muwayyid bi Nasrillah = Helper of the cause of God.

2-    Abul Muzaffar = The father of Victory.

3-    Abul Mughazi = Father of wars.

4-    Burguzid Sultan = Elect or pious king.

5-    Burguzid Illah = The elect of Allah.

6-    Galeo bazarin kuffar= The destroyer of the generation of infidels

7-    Deendar = The pious or religious man

8-    Khalad al Fath Illahu = Let Allah perpetuate his victories.

9-    Zle Illah = The shadow of the Almighty.

10- Jahan Panah = The refuge of the world.

11- Abde ill illah = A devotee of God.

12- Nalanna lana = May we obtain his Shadow.

13- Al Mughni = The enricher.

14- Al Mannan = The benefactor.

15- Khallada Mulkuhu Sultanah = May his kingship perpetuate.

16- Tahamtan = Powerful, mighty.

17- Bahman = Intelligent, adroit.

18- Darai Nigahban = God is the savior.

19- As sanna = One who shows right path.

20- Summi khalilur Rahman = Worthy to be called the friend of the compassionate.

21- Abde Mabud = The adorned one.

22- Billah Al Nannan = of God the gracious.

23- Abul  Fath = Father of victory

24- Al duniya wa al din = The world and religion

25- Al mutawakkal ali al rahman = Trusting in the merciful one.

26- Al mustansir billah = The seeker of aid from God.

27- Al mustawasiq billah = Established by God.

28- Al mustasim billah = Relying on God.

29- Al mansoor = The protected.

30- Al washiq = The one who trusts

31- Al wali = The guardian.

32- Batayed = In the support.

33- Ba nasar = In or by the help (of)

** * * * * * * * *

9-GULBARGA SULTANATE

(BAHMANIS OF DECCEN)

Capital Gulbarga (Ahsanabad)

A H 737-944 / A.D 1337-1538 (201 YEARS )

(1A) NASIR-UD-DIN ISMAIL SHAH

(Pre-Bahmani ruler of Gulbarga Sultanate)

ISMAIL SHAH (Coin-1)

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Obverse               Reverse

Obverse clip_image004 clip_image006 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Ismail Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Ismail Shah

Year : A.H 746- 748 / A.D 1346-347

Denomination : JITAL,      Metal: Copper

Obverse: Nasir-ud-dunya Waddin

Reveres: Abul Fath Ismail Shah

Described : C. J. Rodgers, in 1895

Reference: Rajgor 2500, Goron-BH.4, 3.7 g

Rarity : RARE

* * * * * * * * * *

ISMAIL SHAH (Coin-2)

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Obverse                     Reverse

Obverse clip_image010 clip_image012 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Ismail Shah /Coin-2

Ruler : Ismail Shah

Year : A.H 746- 748 / A.D 1346-347

Denomination: JITAL of 32 rati,         Metal: Copper

Obverse: Sultan Nasir-ud-din Waddin Abul Fath

Reveres: Ismail Shah

Described : O.Codrington, in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2501, Goron-BH.3, 3.6 g

Rarity: VERY RARE.

* * * * * * * * * * *

(1) ALA-UD-DIN HASAN BAHMAN SHAH

(Zafar Khan)

( Founder of Bahmani Dynasty, Gulbarga /3rd of August 1347)

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-1)

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Obverse                  Reverse

Obverse clip_image016 clip_image018 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: 1/8 FALUS,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898.

Reference: Goron-BH.23, 0.4 g

Rarity : RARE

* * * * * * * * * * * *

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-2)

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Obverse                     Reverse

 

Obverse clip_image021 clip_image023 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-2

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: 1/4 FALUS ,         Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898.

Reference: Rajgor 2502, Goron-BH.22, 0.7-0.8 g

Rarity : RARE

* * * * * * * * * * * *

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-3)

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Obverse                Reverse

Obverseclip_image025 clip_image027 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-3

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: 1/2 FALUS ,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898.

Reference: Rajgor 2503, Goron-BH.21, 1.5-1.8 g

* * * * * * * * * * *

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-4)

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Obverse              Reverse

Obverse clip_image030 clip_image032 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-4

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: 1/2 FALUS ,           Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Reference: Rajgor -2504, Goron-BH.21, 1.5-1.8 g (Verity Square)

Rarity : SCARCE

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-5)

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Obverse           Reverse

Obverse clip_image035 clip_image037 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-5

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: 1/6 FALUS,           Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Reference: Rajgor -2504, Goron-BH.21 (Verity Square, Lighter weight)

Rarity : RARE

* * * * * * * * * *

BAHMAN SHAH (Coin-6)

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Obverse                Reverse

Obverse clip_image040 clip_image042 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Bahman Shah /Coin-6

Ruler : Bahman Shah

Year : A.H 748-760 / A.D 1347-1359

Denomination: FALUS,            Metal: Copper

Obverse: Ala-ud-dunya Waddin

Reverse: Bahman Shah As Sultan

Reference: Rajgor -2505, Goron-BH.20, 3.3-3.7 g

* * * * * * * * * *

(2) MUHAMMAD SHAH-I

 (S/o Alauddin Bahman Shah)

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-1)

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Reverse            Obverse

Reverse clip_image046 clip_image048 Obverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-1

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: 1/2 FALUS ,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Muhammad Shah

Reverse: Abd-lllallah (The slave of God)

Described: H.M. Whittell. In 1923

Reference: Rajgor 2518, Goron-BH.40, 2-2.6 g

Rarity : SCARCE

* * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-2)

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Obverse                     Reverse

Obverse clip_image052 clip_image054 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-2

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,       Metal: Copper

Obverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reverse: Bin Bahman Shah As Sultan

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2519, Goron-BH.38, 3-3.6 g

* * * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-3)

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Obverse                     Reverse

Obverse clip_image057 clip_image059 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-3

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,         Metal: Billon

Obverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reverse: Bin Bahman Shah As Sultan

Reference: Rajgor 2519 Goron-BH.38, 3-3.6 g (Verity Billon)

* * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-4)

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Obverse                               Reverse

Obverse clip_image062 clip_image064 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-4

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,         Metal: Copper

Obverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reverse: Bin Bahman Shah As Sultan

Reference: Rajgor 2519 Goron-BH.38, 3-3.6 g (Verity Square)

* * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-5)

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Obverse                     Reverse

Obverse clip_image068 clip_image070 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-5

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,       Metal: Copper

Obverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reverse: Ibne Bahman Shaha As Sultan

Described: E.E.Speight. in 1935

Reference: Rajgor 2520, Goron-BH.37, 3-3.5 g

* * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-6)

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Obverse                  Reverse

Obverse clip_image074 clip_image076 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-6

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Al Muwayyid bi Nasirilla (Helper of the cause of God)

Reverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Described: O.Codrington in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2521, Goron-BH.39, 3.3-3.5 g

* * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-7)

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Obverse                   Reverse

Obverse clip_image079 clip_image081 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-7

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,         Metal: Copper

Obverse: Al Muwayyid bi Nasirilla (Helper of the cause of God)

Reverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reference: Rajgor 2521 Goron-BH.39 (Verity Lighter weight)

* * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-8)

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Obverse                     Reverse

Obverse clip_image083 clip_image085 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-8

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: FALUS,      Metal: Copper

Obverse: Al Muwayyid bi Nasirilla (Helper of the cause of God)

Reverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah

Reference: Rajgor 2522 (Square-?)

* * * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-I (Coin-9)

Obverse, top line

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Reverse, bottom line

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Obverse                                            Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-I /Coin-9

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-I

Year : A.H 760–777 / A.D 1359-1375

Denomination: TANKA,              Metal: Silver

Obverse: Sultan Al ahd Wazzaman Hamiu Mallati Rasul-ur- Rahman.

Reverse: Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah bin Bahman Shah As-Sultan.

Reference: Hami Millati Rasul ar Rahman Type, Rajgor 2531, Goron-BH.28, 10.8-11 g

* * * * * * * * * *

(3) ALA-UD-DIN MUJAHID SHAH

( S/o Muhammad Shah-I )

MUJAHID SHAH (Coin-1)

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Obverse                            Revere

Observe clip_image095 clip_image097 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Mujahid Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Mujahid Shah

Year : A.H 777-779 / A.D 1375–1378

Denomination: FALUS,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Abul Mughazi (Father of wars)

Reverse: Mujahid Shah

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2538, Goron-BH.49, 3-3.4 g

Rarity : SCARECE

* * * * * * * * * *

(4) MUHAMMAD SHAH-ii

(S/o Mahmud Shah & Brother of Dawud Shah-I)

MUHAMMAD SHAH-ii (Coin-1)

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Reverse                          Obverse

Reverse clip_image101 clip_image103 Obverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-II /Coin-1

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-II

Year : A.H 780–799 / A.D 1378 – 1397

Denomination: FALUS,           Metal: Copper

Obverse: Abde Mabud (Slave of God)

Reverse: Muhammad Mahmud

Described: O.Codrington, in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2545, Goron-BH.53, 4-5.3 g

* * * * * * * * * *

MUHAMMAD SHAH-ii (Coin-2)

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Obverse                 Reverse

(Top line)               (Bottom line)

Obverseclip_image107clip_image109Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Muhammad Shah-II /Coin-2

Ruler : Muhammad Shah-II

Year : A.H 780–799 / A.D 1378 – 1397

Denomination: TANKA,        Metal: Silver

Obverse: Al-nasir li-din al-dayyan al-hami li-ahl al-iman

Reverse: Al-wathiq bi-ta’yid al-rahman abul muzaffar Muhammad shah al-sultan

(The supporter of the religion of the Required, the defender of the people of the true faith, he who trusts in the support of the Merciful One etc.)

Described: Gibbs in 1881

Reference: Rajgor 2551, Goron-BH.51, 10.8 g

* * * * * * * * * *

(5) GHIYAS-UD-DIN TAHAMTA N SHAH

(S/o Muhammad Shah-ii)

TAHAMTAN SHAH (Coin-1)

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Obverse                   Reverse

Obverse clip_image113 clip_image115 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Tahamtan Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Tahamtan Shah

Year : A.H 799 / A.D 1397

Denomination: FALUS,        Metal: Copper

Obverse: Al Muwayyid bi-Nasrillah Abul Muzaffar

Reverse: Tahamtan Shah bin-Muhammad Shah

Described: E.E.Speight, in 1935

Reference: Rajgor 2557, Goron-BH-56, 4.5-5.4 g

Rarity : VERY RARE

* * * * * * * * * *

(6) SHAMS-UD-DIN DAWUD SHAH

( Brother of Tahamtan shah and S/o Muhammad Shah-II )

DAWUD SHAH (Coin-1)

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Observe                  Reverse

Obverse clip_image119 clip_image121 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Dawud Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Dawud Shah

Year : A.H 799-800 / A.D 1397

Denomination: FALUS, Metal: Copper

Obverse: Al Muwayyid Bi Nasrillah Abul Muzaffar

Reverse: Dawud Shah

Described: O.Codrington in 1883

Reference: Rajgor 2559, Goron-BH-58, 4.4-5.4 g

Rarity : RARE

* * * * * * * * * *

(7) TAJ-UD-DIN FIROZ SHAH

(S/o Ahmad who was the third son of Bahman Shah)

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-1)

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Obverse                  Reverse

Obverse clip_image125 clip_image127 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate,, Firuz Shah /Coin-1

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: 1/3 FALUS,       Metal: Copper

Obverse: Burguzid illah (The elect of Allah)

Reverse: Firuz Shah

Described: A.H.Siddiqui in 1966

Reference: Rajgor 2561, Goron-BH.69, 1.3-1.7 g

Rarity : SCARECE

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-2)

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Observe                          Reverse

Obverse clip_image131 clip_image133 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-2

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: 1/3 FALUS,             Metal: Copper

Obverse: Burguzid Sultan (Elect or pious king)

Reverse: Firuz Shah

Described: A.H.Siddiqui in 1966

Reference: Copper Coins of Bahmanis, By D. Rja Reddy & P. Suryanarayana Reddy, Legend No.4 of Firuz Shah , Goron-BH.2561, 1.3-1.7 g

Rarity : SCARECE

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-3)

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Observe                  Reverse

Obverse clip_image137 clip_image139 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-3

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: 2/3 FALUS,         Metal: Copper (Round coin)

Obverse: Al Hakim be Amrillah (The judge by the authority)

Reverse: Firuz Shah

Described: O.Codrington in 1898

Reference: Rajgor 2562-4, Goron-BH-67, 2.2-3.7 g

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-4)

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Obverse                   Reverse

Obverse clip_image143 clip_image145 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-4

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: FALUS,         Metal: Copper

Obverse: Raji Ridwan Muheymani (He who seeks the approval of the Confiding One)

Reverse: Firuz Shah Bahmani

Described: E.Thomas in 1871

Reference: Rajgor 2565, Goron-BH.66, 4.7-5.5 g

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-5)

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Obverse                      Reverse

Obverse clip_image148 clip_image150 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-5

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: FALUS,           Metal: Copper

Obverse: Raji Ridwan Muheymani (He who seeks the approval of the Confiding One)

Reverse: Firuz Shah Bahmani

Reference: Rajgor 2565, Goron-BH.64 (Date in Arabic, in margin)

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-6)

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Obverse                            Reverse

Obverse clip_image153 clip_image155 Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-6

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: FALUS,          Metal: Copper-Brass

Obverse: Raji Ridwan Muheymani

Reverse: Firuz Shah Bahmani

Mint: Bahazrat Ahsanabad

Reference: Rajgor 2565, Goron-BH.64

* * * * * * * * * *

FIRUZ SHAH (Coin-7)

Obverse, top line

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Reverse, bottom line

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Obverse                                         Reverse

9-Gulbarga Sultanate, Firuz Shah /Coin-7

Ruler : Firuz Shah

Year : A.H 800 – 825 / A.D 1397- 1422

Denomination: TANKA,         Metal: Silver

Obverse: Sultan Al ahd Wazzaman Al Wathiq bitaidir Rahman

Reverse: Abul muzaffar Taj-ud-dunya-wal-din Firuz shah al-sultan.

(Sultan of the time and the edge, he who confides in the support of the Merciful One etc.)

Reference: Al washq batyid ar rahman type, Rajgor 2570, Goron-BH-63, 10.8-11 g

* * * * * * * * * *