BABUR & HUMAYUN

Saturday, December 3rd, 2011

MUGHAL DYNASTY

A.H 932-1274 / A.D 1526-1858 (336 YEARS)

MUGHAL EMPERORS

The names of those Emperors for whom coins are known ( * coin in collection)

1-* Zahiru-d-din Babur AH 932 – 937 / AD 1526 – 1530

2-*  Nasiru-d-din Humayun AH 937 – 963 / AD 1530 – 1556

3-  Kamran Mirza AH 947 – AD 952

4-*  Jalalu-d-din Akbar AH 963 – 1014 / AD 1556 – 1605

5-*  Nuru-d-din Jahangir AH 1014 – 1037 / AD 1605 – 1627

6-* In Empress Nurjahan’s name by authority of Jahangir

7-  Dawar Bakhsh AH 1037 AD 1627

8-*  Shihabu-d-din Shah Jahan AH 1037 – 1068 / AD 1628 – 1657/8

9-*  Murad Bakhsh (in Gujarat) AH 1068 AD 1657/8

10-  Shah Shuja (in Bengal) AH 1068 – 1070 / AD 1657 – 1660

11-* Muhayyiu-d-din (Muhiu-d-din)  Aurangzeb Alamgir AH 1068 – 1118/19 / AD 1658 – 1707

12-  Azam Shah AH 1118 / AD 1119 1707

13- Kam Bakhsh AH 1119 -1120 / AD 1707 – 1708

14-* Shah Alam Bahadu AH 1119-1124 / AD 1707-1712

15-*  Jahandar Shah AH 1124 AD 1712

16-*  Farrukhsiyar AH 1124 – 1131 / AD 1713 – 1719

17-*  Rafiu-d-Darjat AH 1131 – few months AD 1719

18-*  Rafiu-d-Daula, Shah Jahan II AH 1131 AD 1719

19-  Muhammad Ibrahim AH 1131 – few months AD 1719

20-* Muhammad Shah AH 1131 – 1161 / AD 1719 – 1748

21-* Ahmad Shah Bahadur AH 1161 – 1167 / AD 1748 – 1754

22-*  Azizu-d-din Alamgir II AH 1167 – 1173 / AD 1754 – 1759/60

23-*  Shah Jahan III AH 1173 – 1174 / AD 1759 – 1760

24-*  Shah Alam II AH 1173 – 1221 / AD 1759 – 1806

25-*  Muhammad Akbar II AH 1221 – 1253 / AD 1806 – 1837

26-  Bahadur Shah II Zafar AH 1253 – 1274 / AD 1837 – 1858

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MUGHAL DYNASTY

The Mughal dynasty was founded when Babur, hailing from Ferghana (Modern Uzbekistan), invaded parts of northern India and defeated Ibrahim Shah Lodhi, the ruler of Delhi, at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D

The state thus founded by Babur far exceeded the bounds of the Delhi Sultanate,

A brief interregnum (A.D 1540-1555) during the reign of Babur’s son, Humayun, saw the rise of the Afghan Suri Dynasty under Sher Shah Suri,

However, Sher Shah’s untimely death and the military incompetence of his successors enabled Humayun to regain his throne in 1555.

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Reign: 30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530

Spouse: Maham Begum

Full name: Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur

House: Timurid

Father: Umar Sheykh Mirza, ʿAmīr of Farghana

Mother: Qutlaq Nigar Khanum

Born: February 23, 1483
Andijan, Uzbekistan

Died: December 26, 1530 (age 47)
Agra, India

Burial: Kabul, Afghanistan

Religion: Islam

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Emperor BABUR

In the month of Ramadan of the year 899 AH, and in the twelfth year of Babur age, he became ruler in the country of Fergana (Modern Uzbekistan) capital Andizhan

The day was Tuesday, 9th June 1494 AD, Babur’s father, Umar Sheikh Mirza, king and pigeon fancier, had died in a freak accident. Babur was born at Andijan on 14th February 1483. His named Zahiruddin Muhammad, his nickname was BABUR (The name meant TIGER)

He was the grand son of Sultan Abu Said Mirza of Hirat, a great-grandson of Timur, the legendary Tartar hero. On his mother (Qutlug Nigar Khanam) side, his grandfather was Yunus Khan of Tashkent, the Great Khan of the Mongols, and the thirteenth in the direct line of decent from Changes Khan. Babur was thus a Turko-Mongol.

He died on 26 December 1530 at Agra. He buried first in a garden in Agra, second in a garden tomb Bagh-e-Babur in Kabul. Aged 50 years. Ruled for 4 years in India

He was also a poet, Musician and great author who wrote his biography.

(1) ZAHIR-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD BABUR

(S/o Umar Sheikh Mirza)

(Founder of Mughal dynasty)

SILVER COIN

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Dynasty: Mughal Emperor, Babur / Coin-S.1

Ruler : Babur (A.H 932-937 / A.D 1526-1530)

Denomination: SHAHRUKHI,      Metal: Silver

Rarity : SCARCE

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NOTE : KALIMA is in center on reverse side of Coin-1 of Emperor Babar and around legend is not read.

SOME CLARIFICATION OF TERMS ON COINS

KALIMA is in Arabic language and is expressed as “La ilaha illallah, Muhammad ur Rasool Allah.”

There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is The Messenger of Allah.

Kalima is the Muslim declaration and profession of faith about Allah and Prophet Muhammad.

Kalima is used on the coin of Muslim rulers e.g. Sher Shah Suri, Islam Shah Suri, and Mughal Emperors also used The Kalima, e.g. Emperor Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Murad, and Shuja. Emperor Aurangzeb discontinued the use of Kalima on his coin; but after him Emperor Alamgir-II used the Kalima on some coins

CALIPH (In Arabic, Khlifa) means ‘Rightly guided’ The Mughal Emperors given Kalima on their coin and side by side they gave first four Caliphs name (Abi Bakar, Omar, Osman and Ali) on The coin, That reads their Epithet and name on coin as follows,

Az Siddique ABI BAKAR

Wa Adale OMAR

Az Sharm OSMAN

Wa Ilme ALI

Beside Mughal Emperor, the other Muslim rulers e.g. Turks, Khiljis, Tughluqs, Bahmanis, Bengal Sultan and other had given Kalima and Caliphs name on their coin.

Emperor HUMAYUN

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Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun was born in Kabul on 15th March 1508

Four days after Babur’s death, on 30th December 1530 and 2nd: on 23 July 1555. Humayun, twenty-three, ascended the thrown in Agra. For Hmayun, whose name meant fortunate.

He was elder son of Babur

Born (1508-03-17)17 March 1508, Kabul

Mother: Maham Begum

Spouse: Hamida Banu Begum

He died on 24 January 1556 at Delhi, falling down the stairs of his library. Aged 47 years, Ruled intermittently for 10 years. Buried : Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi

(2) NASIR-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD HUMAYUN

(Eldest son of Emperor Babar)

(COPPER AND SILVER COINS)

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.1

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 937 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.2

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 939 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.3

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-Aman (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 940 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.4

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 941 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.5

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-fath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 941 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.6

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 942 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.7

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 945 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.8

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Dar-ul-khilafath (Agra)

Denomination: DAM,       Metal: Copper

Year : 946 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.9

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Agra

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

Year : 947 A.H

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun /Coin-C.10

Ruler : Humayun

Period : A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.D 1555-1556

Mint : Delhi

Denomination: DAM,      Metal: Copper

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Silver coin

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Dynasty: Mughal, Emperor Humayun / Coin –S1

Ruler: Humayun

Period: A.H 937-947 / A.D 1530-1540

& A.H 962-963 / A.d 1555-1556

Mint: KASHMIR

Denomination: SASNU ,      Metal: Silver

Rarity: RARE

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